Get Rid of Blackheads on Your Lips With White Toothpaste And A Toothbrush vs Grapefruit Essential Oil, Coconut Oil and Cane Sugar vs Petroleum Jelly and Brown Sugar ... and 15 more
Edited by Donna, Eng
Blackheads on the lips are caused by:
- Using dirty lipsticks and lip balms that harbor bacteria
- Using too much lip gloss or Vaseline on your lips, causing pores on and around the lips to become clogged up with oils
- Failing to clean your face properly after eating greasy foods
- Washing your mouth area with a harsh cleanser that causes it to
- Shaving the areas around the lip with dull or dirty razors
Method 1: With White Toothpaste And A Toothbrush
Toothpaste contains a mild abrasive made out of calcium carbonate and dehydrated silica gel. These ingredients, made originally to scrub the teeth, can also be used to gently abrade the lips and remove blackheads. Toothpastes also contain the detergent sodium lauryl sulfate, which cleans your lips thoroughly as you scrub away at them. Toothpaste also contains humectants, which help attract moisture to the lips so that they do not dry out too much during the brushing of the upper skin of the lips. Any spearmint or peppermint oils in the mix act as an antibacterial agent.
- 1Make sure that you are buying toothpaste that is a paste and not a gel, as the gel toothpastes do not contain abrasives. It is important to buy a new toothbrush with soft bristles. Using a toothbrush with hard bristles could cause further infection. Never use an old toothbrush on your lips as you could make any existing bacterial infection worse.Go to the store and buy and brand of white toothpaste and a new toothbrush with soft bristles.
- 4You can also continue to use this treatment as a preventative measure if you like. If any small cuts or abrasions occur then quit using this treatment for at least three days to prevent provoking an infection.You may brush your lips twice a day with a toothbrush until all of the blackheads are gone.
Method 2: With Grapefruit Essential Oil, Coconut Oil and Cane Sugar
This powerful blackhead removing lip scrub contains grapefruit essential oil, which is usually made from the peel and the pulp of grapefruit. Grapefruit is rich in Vitamin C and Zinc, which helps heal any minor soreness and swelling of the lips due to the mild abrasion of the scrub. Grapefruit essential oil is also a powerful antiseptic, washing away bacteria and germs that could be causing the breakouts on your lips. The antioxidants in essential oil of grapefruit, such as limonene, geraniol and linalool are also powerful anti-inflammatories that help shrink pores and prevent breakouts from happening on the lips again. Grapefruit oil also helps this scrub to have a bit of a pleasant tang that tastes good.
The coconut oil used in this formula is also a natural anti-inflammatory that also helps keep the lips moisturized. It is lips that are drying out that tend to produce the most oil, thus creating clogged pores and blackheads. The sugar in this scrub helps exfoliate dead skin cells from lip tissues. Sugar is also a natural source of alpha- hydroxy acids, which helps break down damaged cells and replace them with new ones. Sugar can also helps clean the skin without stripping it of its natural oils.
- 3Keep this scrub in the refrigerator with a tightly capped lid to prevent it from spoiling.You can do this scrub every day if you like.
Method 3: With Petroleum Jelly and Brown Sugar
This particular lip scrub contains Petroleum jelly, which is sold under many generic brands and also the brand name Vaseline. It is a deep moisturizing and protective substance. The theory behind using petroleum jelly to remove blackheads from your lips is that a greasy substance is able to soften other greasy substances and remove the oily plugs that might be caught in your lips. Brown sugar contains alpha-hydroxy acids that gently abrade the top surface of the lip skin, removing the blackheads. Brown sugar also helps dissolve the existing top layer of skin on the lips so that the skin cells can renew and repair themselves
- 1The darker the sugar is, the softer it will be on your skin. You can also just mix this lip scrub right in the palm of your hand if you are making a smaller amount by simply using a dab of petroleum jelly and a couple of sprinkles of brown sugar.Mix 1 tablespoon of petroleum jelly with 2 tablespoons of soft brown sugar in a small jar.
Method 4: With Raw Cacao Powder, Cane Sugar and Coconut Oil
Raw Cacao powder can be used as a fine exfoliating agent for polishing your lips free of blackheads. This powder is rich in antioxidants that fight infection and inflammation. Cacao powder has the added bonus of tasting quite good too. Cane sugar is also very coarse and is an amazing source of Alpha-hydroxy acids that help polish the lips by removing the upper layer of skin cells, and the blackheads that live in pores. There is also the tiniest amount of coconut oil in this scrub, which adds moisture plus healing essential fatty acids to the mixture.
- 1It is best to use organic cacao and organic coconut if you can find them as the healing constituents in them will likely be stronger. You might also want to note that you might find raw cacao powder sold as raw cocoa powder in stores. A good brand to use is Green & Black's Raw Cocoa powder].Combine two teaspoons raw cacao powder with one teaspoon coarse white cane sugar and four drops of coconut oil.
- 3It is normal for your lips to taste sweet after and it is an indication that the ingredients in the scrub are working to dissolve the upper layer of skin cells so that new ones can take their place.Rinse the cacao, sugar and coconut blackhead removing scrub off with a clean washcloth soaked in cool water.
- 4Avoid applying lip balms or lipsticks to your lips afterwards so that the healing ingredients in the scrub can be allowed to take effect.You can do this scrub up to three times a day if you like.
Method 5: With Medicated Lip Balm and White Cane Sugar
Removing blackheads can be as simple as combining your favorite lip balm in a squeeze tube with sugar. There are several different medicated lip balms that can be used for this blackhead removal recipe but the best two are Blistex Medicated Lip Balm, and Nivea Essential Lip Care. You want to choose a medicated lip balm that comes in a squeeze tube so that you can mix it effectively with the coarse white cane sugar that will act as the exfoliating agent in the scrub. The medicated lip balms also contain mint and eucalyptus oils that help fight both fungal and sugar infections. The cane sugar also contains alpha-hydroxy acids, which help smooth and polish the lips, encouraging the blackheads to fall right out on their own. Furthermore, this is a very easy and expedient scrub to do that can be mixed up right in the palm of your hands.
- 2Your goal is to make a bit of a paste that will serve as a polish for your lips.Squirt some of the medicated lip balm on top of the sugar and mix it thoroughly.
- 4Make sure that any linen that you use to clean your mouth area is very clean to avoid spreading infections.Rinse a wash cloth with cool water and then pat your mouth dry with a cool towel.
- 6Do not continue doing this scrub if you feel severe burning, stinging or itching wherever it is applied on your lips. A bit of pink on the flesh of the lips is normal as the essential oils in the lip balm will serve to stimulate the circulation in your lip area. However if your lips turn very red and start swelling it can mean that you are allergic to an ingredient in the lip balm.You can use this type of blackhead removal scrub on your lips twice a day.
Method 6: With Castor Oil and Espresso Coffee Grounds
In this easy recipe for removing blackheads from the lips, espresso coffee grounds are recycled from your espresso maker and mixed with castor oil to make a nourishing blackhead removal mixture. Castor oil is an age-old remedy for skin blemishes that is full of essential fatty acids that nourish and heal the skin. Castor oil helps to fade the black or red look that can come with an infestation of blackheads on the lips so that they are less obvious over time. Castor oil is also very strong disinfectant that prevents fungus and bacterial infections from infecting the skin. As an added bonus, continually using castor oil on your lips can help them look plumper and smoother over time. The fact that castor oil is such an effective moisturizer also helps prevent the lip skin from drying out, which in turn prevents skin pores from producing the excess oil that causes blackheads.
The coffee grounds are rich in antioxidants that help skin cells repair themselves but also act as the main exfoliating agent that helps wipe away the oily clogs in skin pores that cause blackheads in the first place.
- 1It is best to do this in a smaller jar with a cap so that you can use any remaining scrub later. The best time to make this scrub is just after you have finished making a cup of espresso coffee as the grounds will be a bit warm. Their warmth will help the skin pores of your lips open up a bit and also it will help soften the tough oily comedones that make up the core of a blackhead. However, you can also apply this castor oil and espresso coffee grounds scrub at a cooler temperature as well.Mix one teaspoon of castor oil with two teaspoons of slightly damp espresso coffee grounds to make a fine paste.
- 2The warm espresso coffee grounds should be working efficiently to remove the oils from clogged pores in your lips as you use them to polish your blackheads away.Apply the mixture to your lips with your forefinger and scrub gently for a minute or two, being aware that it is necessary to apply vigorously to areas on your mouth where the blackheads are especially bad.
- 5If you experience additional oil production due to the application of castor oil then stop using this particular solution for removing blackheads.You can use this mixture at least once a day.
Method 7: With Sugar in The Raw, Honey and Olive Oil
This tasty blackhead removal scrub for the lips uses brown sugar as the exfoliating agent and honey as the disinfectant. Sugar in the Raw, also known as turbinado sugar will help remove blackheads and bacteria from all of the crevices of the lips. Aside from killing all microorganisms and bacteria on the lips, the honey in this lip treatment also has a sticky factor that helps pull oil and dead skin cells out of the pores as you scrub with it. The olive oil in this recipe for a blackhead removing lip scrub adds moisture as well as adds essential fatty acids to the mix. This assists with cell renewal and repair. All three ingredients are humectants, which means that they are substances that draw moisture to the skin, preventing an overproduction of sebum.
- 2Rub your lip with the mixture, with the intention of polishing away your blackheads.Put a bit of the mixture on a clean forefinger and apply it to your lips.
- 3There is no need to rinse your lips after this treatment, as you want the olive oil to keep the lips moisturized. Most blackheads will rub right of during the first polish with this scrub but it may take a couple of treatments to remove all of your blemishes.Wipe any sugary debris from your lips with a dry paper towel.
- 4You can put this scrub in a jar with a top and use it for several days in a row. Do not wear lip gloss or lipstick afterwards or you could clog the pores on your lips even more and provoke an infection.This scrub can be used twice times a day to help remove blackheads from your lips.
Method 8: With Peppermint Oil, Sugar in The Raw, Honey and Coconut Oil
- 1Blend this mixture thoroughly.In a small bowl mix together 1 tablespoon raw organic coconut oil, 3 teaspoons of coarse white cane sugar (sometimes sold as Sugar in the Raw, or Turbindo sugar), 1 teaspoon of liquid honey.
- 3Polish your lips with the mixture, paying special attention to the area that is afflicted with blackheads.Put a dab of the polish on a clean forefinger and apply it to your lips.
- 4There is no need to rinse your lips after this treatment as you want the coconut and peppermint oils to penetrate deeply into your pores. Most blackheads will rub right of during the first polish with this scrub but it may take a couple of treatments to remove the oily clogs from all of your pores.Wipe any grit from your lips with a dry paper towel.
- 5If your lips swell up or turn red stop the use of the peppermint oil because it can indicate that you are hypersensitive or allergic to it. You can put this scrub in a jar with a top and store it in the refrigerator indefinitely.This scrub can be used up to three times a day to help remove blackheads from your lips.
Method 9: With Pineapple Juice, Turbindo Sugar and Coconut Oil
Pineapple juice is very acidic and a generous source of Vitamins A and C, which are need to encourage healthy skin cell renewal on the lips. Pineapple also contains bromelain, which is a very powerful anti-inflammatory that can discourage the chronic inflammation that causes blackhead breakouts. Pineapple also helps stimulate the circulation in the area of the lips. This brings blood with new nutrients to the area. The coconut oil is rich in essential fatty acids that help soften the oily cores of the blackheads so that they are easily removed. Turbindo Sugar, also sold under the brand name of Sugar in the Raw. Sugar in the Raw is rich in alpha-hydroxy acids and encourages skin cells to renew themselves. This coarse blonde sugar also acts an exfoliant, helping to clear the skin of any surface debris and dead skin cells.
- 2If the sugar and the liquids still need mixing after this, take the lid off of the jar and mix well with a small forkAdd two heaping tablespoons of Sugar in the Raw to the liquid, put the cap on the jar and shake it vigorously again.
- 3It is normal to feel the scrub stinging your lips slightly as you do this. Do not polish your lips until they are abraded, however you should be able to see the blackheads on your lips dissolving before your eyes.Apply the pineapple lip scrub to your lips and use a polishing motion to exfoliate them for about two minutes.
- 5One desired side-effect of the scrub is that because it is so stimulating to the circulation it might actually make your lips look plumper.You can do this blackhead removing scrub for lips up to four times a day if you like.
Method 10: With Garlic Paste and Iodized Salt
Be forewarned that this particular scrub might sting your lips a little as the antibacterial agent known as allicin in garlic paste is very strong and stimulates your circulation. Garlic paste is easily purchased in grocery stores and usually consists of a mixture of masticated garlic mixed with a little olive oil or canola oil. These oils help dilute the garlic so it is not too strong for the tender skin on your lips. The allicin in garlic is also potent anti-fungal and anti-bacterial element that can kill any type of microbe that might be causing a chronic case of blackheads on your lips. It also acts as an astringent that tightens up pores once they are cleaned up and it is also a potent anti-inflammatory. As an added bonus, you may find that this lip paste for blackheads is also an effective lip plumper because it stimulates the circulation of blood to your lips. The salt in this mixture helps exfoliate the skin and remove the oily clogs stuck in the pores on your lips or around your mouth.
- 1The salt will stick to the mound of garlic paste on your finger. You could also make the mixture in a bowl, using two squeezes of garlic paste and ¼ of a teaspoon of salt. However, when amounts are so minute it makes perfect sense to simply make this paste on the tip of your finger. This is also recommended because garlic paste has a strong odor that is probably best stored inside the plastic tube it came in.Squeeze a bit of garlic paste onto the tip of your forefinger and then dip it into a bit of salt.
- 2It is normal to feel a slight stinging sensation as you rub it over your lip skin. As your rub your lips with the paste, you should see the comedones from the blackheads begin to disappear. It is normal for your lips to feel a bit tingly after this treatment.Massage the garlic paste and salt mixture onto your lips.
- 4Rub your lip with the mixture, with the intention of polishing away your blackheads.Using a clean forefinger apply this mixture to your lips.
- 6You can put this scrub in a jar with a lid and keep it for use on your lips at a later time.This scrub can be used four times a day to help remove blackheads from your lips.
Method 13: With A Banana Peel and Brown Sugar
The inside skin of a banana peel is just the right texture to use as a natural scrubbing tool to remove blackheads from your lips. The peel is naturally emolliant and greases up the lips slightly as you scrub with it, causing blackheads to loosen and fall out. Banana peels are also rich in Vitamin E and A, which nourishes the skin of the lip. Brown sugar is coarse, soft and acts as an exfoliant. Both the banana and the brown sugar contain alpha-hydroxy acids that help resurface the area of the skin that is being treated for the blackheads.
- 3Make sure to pay attention to the area of your lips that are most affected by blackheads. It is normal to feel your skin sting a little as you do this mask as the banana peel has fruit acids in it that work to remove the top layer of skin cells from your lips.Apply the banana skin with the brown sugar clinging on it to your clean dry lips and scrub the area enthusiastically.
- 4Your skin may feel a bit hot after this treatment, which is normal. If your skin feels very hot, you can cool it down a bit by applying a bit of cool yogurt that has been in the refrigerator on your lips and then wipe it down with a tissue.Clean your mouth well with a coarse, rough washcloth, removing any banana debris from your lips as you wipe it off.
- 5If your skin begins to itch or break out, then refrain from using this at-home treatment for lip blackheads again.You can do this banana peel and sugar lip scrub once a day to keep unclogging your pores and help prevent future breakouts.
Method 14: With Petitgrain Essential Oil and Coconut Oil
Petitigrain essential oil is a very powerful antibiotic that destroys all bacteria and fungus on the skin. This simple scrub is especially effective for blackheads on the mouth that are caused by the use of old or dirty lip balms or lipsticks. Petitigrain is a tiny citrus fruit that tastes like bitter orange. It is also a natural anti-inflammatory that helps calm any swelling on the lips caused by the blackheads. The coconut oil in this lip scrub is a powerful disinfectant that gets rid of any bacteria and it also helps the lips retain their moisture balance so that they do not dry out fragile skin. This is important because dry lips caused by the constant licking of the lips can dry them out and cause blackheads.
- 1The mixture should appear and feel like a grainy cosmetic scrub.In a small bowl blend together a tablespoon of coconut oil, a tablespoon of white sugar and four drops petitigrain essential oil.
- 2Be sure that your lips are clean and dry first and be sure to focus on those areas on your lips that seem most afflicted with blackheads.Apply the scrub to your lips and lip area with your forefinger, using a firm polishing motion with a lot of pressure.
- 3Do not clean your lips and avoid applying lipstick and balms for several hours after the petitigrain essential oil and white sugar treatment.Wipe the scrub off of your lips with a moist paper towel.
- 4However, if your lips feel like they are burning, or if they start swelling, remove the scrub and do not use this particular treatment ever again because these symptoms signify an allergy to petitgrain essential oil.You can do this petitgrain and sugar scrub once a day to remove blackheads on your lips.
Method 15: With Apricot Kernel Oil and Sugar
Apricot kernel oil, also sometimes sold as apricot seed oil, is a very slick and luscious moisturizing oil that is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acids. Apricot seed oil is excellent for renewing and repairing the fragile skin on and around your lips. Apricot kernel oil is what you need to use if you fear that the blackheads are scarring your lips and maybe even misshaping them with blemishes. Compared to other oils, apricot kernel oil is one of the least greasy. It is absorbed very quickly into the skin, so this is a good blackhead removal treatment to do if you are in a hurry. This scrub also helps the lips stay hydrated as you polish the blackheads away. White sugar is also a great source of glycolic acid, which is also known for tightening and toning the pores as well as assisting them with healing.
- 1Most people can put this scrub together without doing much measuring of ingredients, right in the palm of their hand.In a small bowl or the palm of your hand blend together a tablespoon of apricot kernel oil with two tablespoon of fine white sugar and mix the ingredients together well.
- 2Be sure that your lips are clean and dry before you apply the scrub and be sure to focus on those areas on your lips that seem most afflicted with blackheads. This scrub may be less effective if it is applied to lips from which food and lipstick have not been totally removed.Apply the scrub to your lips and lip area, using a smooth, but firm polishing motion.
- 3Do not clean your lips and avoid applying lipstick and balms for several hours after applying the apricot kernel oil and sugar treatment.Wipe any of the excess scrub off of your lips with a paper towel or washcloth that has been moistened with warm water.
- 4However, if your lips feel like they are abraded, use it less frequently.You can do this apricot kernel oil and sugar scrub up to a day to remove blackheads on your lips.
Method 16: With Vitamin E Oil and White Table Salt
Vitamin E oil is a potent healer of the skin around the mouth and on the lips. It is a sticky transparent oil that becomes quite tacky when mixed with salt. This helps this scrub to physically pull the blackheads out of your lips. Vitamin E oil is very rich and thick and it helps your lips and skin pores around the mouth retain moisture, so that breakouts of blackheads are not caused by skin dryness. The fine white table salt in the mixture acts an exfoliant and polisher of the skin, helping to remove stubborn dirt and grease from pores. The scrubbing action enabled by the salt also helps stimulate the circulation in the skin so that healthy blood can feed new skin cells.
- 1The amounts of ingredients needed for this scrub are so small that you can mix it up in a jiffy in the palm of your hand.In a small bowl or the palm of your hand blend together a tablespoon of Vitamin E oil with two tablespoons of fine white table salt and mix the two ingredients together.
- 2Be sure that your lips are clean and dry before you apply the scrub. It is normal for your lips to feel very gooey during this process as Vitamin E oil is very thick and sticky.Apply the salt and Vitamin E oil scrub to your lips and lip area, using a polishing motion.
- 3Do not clean your lips and avoid applying lipstick and balms for several hours afterwards after this at-home blackhead treatment. You should also avoid licking your lips excessively after this treatment, as this can also cause your lips to dry out and become more infected with blackheads.Wipe any of the excess scrub off of your lips and mouth area with a paper towel or washcloth that has been soaked in very hot water.
- 4However, if your lips feel like they are abraded, because of the salt, use it less frequently.You can do this vitamin E oil and salt scrub up to three times a day to remove blackheads on your lips.
Method 17: With Avocado Oil and Sugar
Avocado oil is a thick, rich clear oil that is very sticky and helps pull grime and grease from your lip skin and the pores around your mouth. Avocado oil is well known for tightening and toning the pores of the skin as well as preventing scarring from blemishes. The oil is also rich in Vitamin A, E and essential fatty healthy acids, which will keep your lips and skin in optimum health. Sugar is a source of alpha-hydroxy acids, which aid in resurfacing and clarifying fragile lip skin tissues. The sugar also removes the top layer of skin from the lips, so that new, healthier skin cells can replace the ones that are damaged by chronic blackhead breakouts.
- 1Most people can put this scrub together in the palm of their hand, using their forefinger to mix it all together.In a small bowl or the palm of your hand blend together a tablespoon of avocado oil with two tablespoon of fine white sugar and mix the two ingredients together well.
- 2Be sure that your lips are clean and dry before you apply this sticky and be sure to focus on the black heads. As the avocado oil in the scrub is so thick, the rubbing motion may cause the avocado oil and sugar mixture to rub off in rubbery strips.Apply the scrub to your lips and lip area, using small circular motions.
- 3Do not clean your lips and avoid applying lipstick and balms for several hours after this blackhead removal treatment. You should also avoid licking your lips a lot, which is a natural temptation, to avoid drying them out.Wipe any of the excess avocado oil and sugar away from your mouth area with a paper towel or washcloth that has been moistened with hot water.
- 4For a change of pace, you can also use the same amount of salt in the recipe and enjoy a more savory lip scrub.You can do this avocado oil and sugar scrub every day to remove blackheads on your lips.
Method 18: With Argan Oil and Brown Sugar
Argan oil is a very rich thin oil that is loaded with essential fatty acids and antioxidants, making it an excellent choice as an ingredient in a scrub for the lips. It is deeply moisturizing and a humectant that attracts moisture from the air to the lip skin. Argan oil also has a reputation for regenerating damaged skin cells. The brown sugar in this lip scrub is a tasty source of alpha-hydroxy acids, which aids in resurfacing lip tissue. The coarse brown sugar also physically removes the top layer of skin from the lips, removing grease and debris that clog skin cells so that new skin cells can grow.
- 1Most people can mix these two ingredients together right in the palm of their hand in just a few seconds, and apply the mixture quite quickly to their lips.In a small bowl or the palm of your hand blend together a tablespoon of argan oil with two tablespoon of brown sugar and blend the two ingredients together well.
- 2Be sure that your lips are clean and dry before you apply this scrub for it to be the most effective. Scrub hard, paying attention to any areas on your mouth that are particularly afflicted with blemishes.Apply the scrub to your lips and lip area, using small tight circular motions.
- 3Resist the urge to lick your lips clean as it not only dries out your lips, but it is not that healthy to ingest argan oil. Avoid applying lipstick and balms for several hours after this blackhead removal treatment.Wipe any of the excess argan oil and sugar off of your lips or with a paper towel or washcloth that has been moistened with hot water.
- 4Some people are sensitive to argan oil, and if you develop any redness around the mouth while using this scrub then stop using it.You can do this argan oil and brown sugar scrub every day to remove blackheads on your lips.
Tips and Tricks
- Replace your lipstick and lip balms every three months to make sure that you are not spreading the bacteria that causes blackheads on your lips
- It is a good idea to clean your lips of any greases by using an oil-free cleanser such as pHisoderm before you apply any of the lips scrubs or other treatments to avoid spreading infection and encouraging additional breakouts of blackheads.
- Don't use a cosmetic blackhead extracting tool near your lips as this type of extraction could cause scarring or swelling that is permanent.
- When buying essential oils for use in mixtures on the lips make sure that they are food grade.
- Do not attempt to squeeze blackheads that occur around the lips as that will just make the problem worse.
- Don't use lip gloss or Vaseline on your lips until you are sure the blackhead problem has cleared up
- When in a store that sells cosmetics, avoid trying on the sample lipsticks or lip glosses as they could harbor bacteria
- Never borrow a razor or lipstick or lip balm from someone else as these can harbor bacteria
- Use a napkin to wipe your mouth after eating greasy or sloppy foods
- Avoid using toner or astringent cleansers on your lip area if you suspect that is what is causing your breakouts.
- Always use a very sharp razor to shave the area around the lips as dull one can cause small cuts in the skin that can lead to blackheads
- Before applying any scrub make sure that your lips are very clean and dry
- If you need a lip scrub that contains coconut oil to be creamier then put it in the refrigerator for a while; if you need it to be more liquid then leave it somewhere warm so that it liquefies.
Questions and Answers
Please help me, my lips head almost 9 years problem?
Its looking very ODD, its mixed with my lips skin, so how can I remove it. Please advise me an appropriate answer that I can get a solution early. I have tried: Its really long time, so day by day its very much unhappy to me, how can I get any solution. I think it was caused by: I think its really very odd to look at my lips. Some years ago my lip skin were too much dry then its bleeding slow, so skin was very much dry, its almost 14 years ago!
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