Use Cinnamon for Menstrual Cramps and Fertility

Edited by Mian Sheilette Ong, Eng, Lynn, Anonymous and 15 others

...More
Meme Cinnamon Fertility Benefits: * Eases Menstrual Cramps* reduces insulin resistance* Pcos* reduces heavy menstrual bleeding .jpg

The female anatomy is a complex puzzle unique to each woman. One cannot assume what works for one woman, will work for another, especially when it comes to reproduction. Women's fertility is a vital, yet very sensitive issue. Some perceive reproduction as the fulfillment of being a woman. We all understand that it's necessary for women to experience the often-difficult process of menstruation every twenty-eight days, to prepare their bodies for pregnancy. It's important to address any issues involving your menstrual cycle, to ensure your body has the best prospects for good health and fertility, if the desire is to produce a child. It's common for women to experience problems during their menstrual cycles, the most frequent complaint being menstrual cramps. As women mature sexually, fertility becomes more and more important. When menstrual issues threaten a women's reproductive success, they are usually addressed by many medical experts, however, a percentage of the female population prefers natural means to deal with menstrual cramps and to promote fertility. This is where cinnamon comes into the picture.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Contents
Ad

Essentials of menstrual cramps

Cramps 2.jpg

Most women are familiar with menstrual cramps, wave-like pains in the pelvic area during their menstrual cycle. Menstrual cramps are not the same as those experienced during PMS (premenstrual syndrome), however, both can be felt simultaneously. Women can experience mild to severe menstrual cramps. Mild cramps are barely felt and only last for a short while. Severe cramps are so painful that many women become incapacitated for days. About 50 percent of all women experience some degree of menstrual cramps during their period. Approximately 15 percent of these women have severe menstrual cramps. Dysmenorrhea is another term for menstrual cramps. These are the two types:

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  1. 1
    Primary dysmenorrhea.
    This type of dysmenorrhea has no underlying problem in the female reproductive system that causes the pain and discomfort. This may start within half a year to a year after the girl's first menstrual cycle or the menarche. Dysmenorrhea usually starts when ovulation occurs within the cycle. Ovulation is when a women's egg is released from the ovaries. Bleeding begins before the ovulation process, so adolescent girls won't experience menstrual cramps for several months to years after they start menstruating.
    Advertisement
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  2. 2
    Secondary dysmenorrhea.
    This type of menstrual cramps is manifested because of an underlying problem in the woman's reproductive system. This may start at menarche or may develop years later.
    Advertisement
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Every month, the endometrium or the uterine lining is prepared for pregnancy by thickening. This process gets a nest ready for the fertilized egg to attach itself to. If, during this time, the egg is not fertilized by a male's sperm, the progesterone and estrogen levels go down, resulting in a swollen endometrium, and the uterine lining is shed with the flow of menstrual blood because it is not needed. The uterine lining will be replaced once the next menstrual cycle begins. When the endometrium breaks down, prostaglandins (pain compounds) are released. Prostaglandins cause uterine contractions, which leads to vasoconstriction (constriction of the blood vessels that supply blood to the uterine lining). The contraction hinders the delivery of oxygenated blood to the endometrium. That is why the lining of the uterus collapses, dies, and detaches. The uterine contractions expel the dead endometrial tissue lining. As the uterus contracts, leukotrienes (contributes to inflammation) are also released. If the woman's cervix is too narrow, the cramping is usually heightened.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

The level of pain in dysmenorrhea depends on the amount of prostaglandins released by the woman's body. Therefore women who do not experience menstrual cramps have very low prostaglandin levels, compared to those who experience more severe menstrual cramps.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Cinnamon as Treatment for Menstrual Cramps

Indeed, with the advancement of medical technology, pain relief and anti-inflammatory medications are very easy to come by. There are OTC medicines that will get rid of any type of pain, particularly, menstrual cramps. Yet, even in the midst of all these easy medical solutions, many women still opt for natural means to eliminate menstrual cramps. Cinnamon is a well-known spice that treats many conditions such as diarrhea and pelvic pains, especially menstrual cramps. By battling disease-causing microorganisms, cinnamon targets inflammation. This spice is also a rich source of antioxidants that prevent cell deterioration brought about by free radicals.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Cinn1.jpg

The anti-inflammatory components in cinnamon make it an ideal spice to treat menstrual cramps. Cinnamon is also an anti-spasmodic that relaxes the pelvic muscles, therefore cutting down the pain levels during menstruation. The unique ability of cinnamon is brought about by the various components of the essential oils in the cinnamon tree's bark. The components responsible for helping with menstrual cramps are cinnamyl acetate, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde. It can also regulate your blood's sugar levels, fights pathogens, and prevents your blood from clotting.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

The manganese, iron, dietary fiber, and calcium also improves circulation and boosts your immune system.

How to use Cinnamon as a Solution for Menstrual Cramps

How to use Cinnamon as a Solution for Menstrual Cramps 34846.jpg

To harness the pain relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon, you have to treat it as a delicious way to get rid of your discomfort. Below are some of the ways you could use cinnamon in dealing with your menstrual cramps:

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  1. 1
    Purchase the right kind of cinnamon.
    True cinnamon is Ceylon cinnamon. This is much lighter than the common Cassia cinnamon. Acquire the true cinnamon so that you won't have issues with the coagulation of your blood. It would be better if you purchase the sticks so your ground cinnamon will be fresh.
    Advertisement
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  2. 2
    Sprinkle.
    Add cinnamon by sprinkling it over your toast, oatmeal, or cereal every morning. You can also add cinnamon to your snacks and main dishes. Rye toast with a bit of butter, cinnamon and organic honey is so healthy, and perfectly delicious.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  3. 3
    Make tea.
    Cinnamon can also be taken as a soothing tea. You can steep ground cinnamon in hot water and then add honey to it. Drink cinnamon tea once a day before your monthly period starts and on the first day of your menstrual cycle. The tea is very effective in keeping menstrual cramps at bay. About 0.5-2.5 grams of ground cinnamon should be steeped in ½ cup of hot water for 15 minutes.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  4. 4
    Sprinkle some cinnamon in your coffee grounds when making a pot of coffee.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  5. 5
    Combine with other herbs.
    You can ask your doctor about combining cinnamon with other herbs such as Szechwan Lovage Root, Angelica Root or Motherwort. These herbs contribute effectively to the reduction of menstrual cramps. Lady's mantle is very good for excessive bleeding, if you have that problem with your cycle.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Fertility Information

Fertility Information 79908.jpg

Fertility is ability of a woman's body to become pregnant. It depends on your fecundity or your reproductive potential. Fecundity relies on the production of gametes, gamete fertilization, and the ability to carry your offspring to term. If you are not fertile, you are sterile. Women whose desire is to be fulfilled as a mother, dread the idea of being sterile. That is why many women want to enhance their fertility. There are modern medical means to achieve this, but many women are deterred by either the cost or the side effects that accompany the treatments. Alternative methods to improve fertility attract many women because they are much safer, as well as being affordable.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

How Cinnamon Treats Infertility

Since at least 2000 BCE in Egypt, cinnamon has been found in cupboards all over the world. Cinnamon does not only provide flavor, but also provides relief from abdominal pain and solution for infertility as well. Many women suffer from menorrhagia (heavy bleeding because of uterine fibroids and endometriosis), PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome), and Type II diabetes. PCOS is directly associated to infertility. With the help of cinnamon, the insulin resistance associated with Type II diabetes and PCOS is taken care of.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

PCOS.jpg

When you have a high resistance to insulin, you have an increased level of blood glucose. This insulin resistance is evident in women with PCOS. Cinnamon is able to decrease the level of insulin resistance by increasing the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the pathway that signals insulin. This makes insulin work effectively. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of the enzymes that are responsible for every cell to function. A study was performed on women for 8 weeks. Half of the study group took cinnamon and the other half was given a placebo. After 8 weeks, both groups of women were tested for 2-hour oral glucose tolerance and fasting blood sugar tests. The women who had cinnamon had lower insulin resistance than those who didn't.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Cinnamon retards the flow of food from the stomach to the intestines. This makes your digestive system break down carbohydrates very slowly. This event is vital for women who have PCOS because it delays hunger and facilitates weight loss. Weight loss is important for women with PCOS.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Pcos2.jpg

Women with PCOS are predisposed to a reduced insulin resistance because of the following reasons:

  1. 1
    Resistance to insulin affects the normal process of ovulation by preventing or limiting ovulation.
    What happens here is that the maturation of the released egg is very much delayed or stopped.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  2. 2
    If a woman has a high insulin resistance, she is more likely to have a miscarriage.
    An imbalance in the levels of insulin because of PCOS makes it a challenge for the fertilized embryo to attach to the endometrium or the uterine lining.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  3. 3
    High insulin resistance could lead to Type II or non-insulin dependent diabetes.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Cinnamon also lowers the incidence of menorrhagia or increased menstrual bleeding. The spice helps women who are diagnosed with menorrhagia related to uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, and endometriosis, which all affect the female's fertility. It also prevents miscarriages and heavy bleeding during childbirth.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

How to Use Cinnamon to Treat Infertility

The following are ways to use cinnamon in treating infertility in women:

Cinn pow.JPG
  1. 1
    For women with PCOS and Type II Diabetes.
    If you want to take the dark bark powder, take 1 capsule (3 times everyday) or about 3 grams (1 teaspoon) of cinnamon in powder form. If you prefer to take the tincture, take about 45 to 115 drops or 2-4 ml everyday in some water.
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

  2. 2
    For women who suffer from heavy menstrual bleeding.
    If dried bark powder is preferred, take 1 teaspoon (heaping) in a cup of hot water every day or 3 capsules all at once, then 1 capsule 2 additional times the same day. If you want the tincture, take 115 drops one time followed by 30 drops two times in the same day. Remember that you should only do this is you are bleeding heavily.
    Cinnamon-tincture-4.jpg
    Was this step helpful? Yes | No | I need help

    Advertisement

Tips and Warnings

  • If you want to use cinnamon to decrease your resistance to insulin, inform your doctor.
  • Do not take cinnamon in very high doses because it can damage your digestive tract's mucosal lining.
  • Do not take cinnamon if you are taking blood-thinning medications because cinnamon is a mild blood thinner.
  • Do not use cinnamon if you have ulcers.
  • Do not take cinnamon as a supplement if you are lactating or pregnant.
  • Only use Ceylon cinnamon. Cassia cinnamon causes blood to coagulate if used for long periods. It can also cause kidney and liver damage.
  • Do not chew candies, gum, or mints with cinnamon because this causes inflammation and ulcers in the oral cavity down to the throat.

Questions and Answers

Does cinnamon powder help ovulation and menstruation?

Yes, cinnamon will help with ovulation and menstruation. Cinnamon helps regulate menstrual cycles, as it improves pelvic blood flow.

The answer is yes. Cinnamon powder greatly helps in ovulation and menstruation. The rationale behind it is that cinnamon greatly reduces the insulin resistance of the body making your body increase its insulin absorption. Insulin plays a major role in promoting ovulation and menstruation. If a woman's body is resistant to insulin, she will not ovulate properly because of the limitation of the maturation cycle of the egg, which leads to irregular ovulation and menstruation. Moreover, research shows that women who take cinnamon supplements have improved ovulation and menstruation, over women who do not. To sum it up, cinnamon powder is one of the best home remedies to regulate ovulation and menstruation.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: Can you take cinnamon powder during ovulation. Is it induction medicine or not

Can we take cinnamon powder after our period or will it have an effect on conception process?

Yes, cinnamon can be consumed after your period, and it won't negatively affect your chances at conception. Cinnamon is actually sometimes used to help in infertility problems caused by hormonal disorders. Cinnamon helps to decrease the production of testosterone in the ovaries by managing the blood sugar and improving the insulin process that leads to excessive testosterone production.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

It is highly recommended to stop consuming cinnamon once you are pregnant, as it induces uterine contractions and can result in premature labor. If you consume cinnamon while you are pregnant, but not regularly, you should be fine, but it's always best to consult your doctor to avoid any risks.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

There is nothing wrong in consuming cinnamon after your period. As it's organic, there are really no harmful effects on the body, especially with conception. The only thing you may need to be concerned about is if you have certain allergies. Also, if you have other conditions like problems with blood clotting, you may want to consult your doctor first before including cinnamon as a big part of your diet.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Could we use honey cinnamon drink after our menstrual cycle?

Yes, there is nothing stating whether or not you cannot use the cinnamon honey drink after you are done menstruating. This combination will is very healthy for you in terms of your body and wellness so yes you can drink this combination with no problems, even after your cycle has finished.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Yes, you may use honey cinnamon drink after the menstrual period. Instead of using sugar or any other sweetener in a cinnamon drink, just use honey. Honey is healthier than any other sweetener. The combination of it is good and healthy.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: Hi, how many grams a day of cinnamon tea should I drink for Menstruation?

Does cinnamon powder help bring on periods?

No, this fact has been stated but not proven. There is no conclusive proof that cinnamon powder is effective in starting a late period.

No, most likely it will not. Your body has its natural cycle which will usually only be affected by large amounts of hormones. Even though cinnamon can help with some hormonal problems it will not start your period early.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: Does cinnamon bring your period down

Does cinnamon help girls get their first period?

Girls don't really need the aid of cinnamon when they are waiting for their first period. It is the body that decides when it is ready for the big change. However, once girls start menstruating, cinnamon can help lessen the blood flow and help you out when it comes to fertility.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

From what I have read, no it does not. Women get their first menstrual cycle when their bodies begin to produce enough hormones.

See more questions like this: Does cinnamon help to regulate your period

What is the effect of cinnamon on menstrual pain?

The effect of using cinnamon to relieve menstrual pain, is the pain is lessened significantly, with cramps coming less frequently.

Cinnamon has very useful anti-inflammatory properties to help relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. The primary components that help are cinnamyl acetate, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde. All of these work together to make cinnamon a very useful spice.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: How to prepare cinnamon for pelvic pain

How to use cinnamon powder to balance your hormonal imbalance and for a healthy pregnancy?

I am 31 year-old suffering with PCOS problems. My pregnancies end in miscarriage. It happened to me 3 times. Looking forward for something to balance my Hormones

The recommendation if you have PCOS is to eat a diabetic diet. PCOS mirrors diabetes in how your body reacts. It's also a good idea to ask your doctor to check your progesterone levels. Sometimes, when PCOS causes miscarriages there is a needed to take progesterone support medications during the pregnancy in order to carry to full term. It is a simple blood test.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

For women with PCOS and Type II Diabetes.

If you want to take the dark bark powder, take 1 capsule (3 times everyday) or about 3 grams (1 teaspoon) of cinnamon root in powder form. If you prefer to take the tincture, take about 45 to 115 drops or 2-4 ml everyday in some water.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

How much cinnamon should I take for a menstruation problem?

Since cinnamon is just food, there is really no limit as to the amount that you can take to relieve menstruation problems. You can even add cinnamon to a lot of food and beverages. However, keep in mind that if you have blood-clotting problems, it may be useful to limit your consumption, as too much cinnamon may lead to thinning of the blood.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

On the other hand, if you do not have any special conditions, you can take as much cinnamon as possible. If you are taking it for menstrual problems, such as cramps, it is best to start taking cinnamon at least a day before you expect your period to start. This way, it will already condition your body to avoid cramps. It will already relax your muscles and avoid inflammation even before the period begins. You will notice that you will feel better later on.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

How to use Cinnamon to Treat Infertility.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome can be cured by using cinnamon daily. This will help jump-start a women period/cycle, which, in turn promotes fertility. The research regarding this treatment was conducted at Columbia University.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: I want to know if cinnamon helps with Fertility issues?

Cinnamon and The Fertilized Egg.

Once pregnant (yes, this also means the fertilized egg), you should not take cinnamon because it stimulates the uterine causing contractions, which can bring on premature labor. An occasional cup is not going to do harm, but if consumed daily (even just the smelling cinnamon oil) can do damage in some way. If you've had trouble carrying a baby to full term in the past, it's better to avoid it entirely.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Is fertility related to painful menstrual cramps?

It is not always related. Menstrual cramps are caused by several factors. Therefore, linking it to fertility alone is not reliable.

Also, the intake of certain food may also lead to cramps, such as eating too many acidic foods, which may cause inflammation of the muscles.

How can cinnamon help me during a heavy menstrual flow?

I usually have heavy bleeding during my menstrual cycle. How would I use cinnamon to help?

In addition to using cinnamon to reduce your flow, as stated in the above VisiHow article, cinnamon can be used to reduce heavy bleeding, but do not use it more than two days in a row and only use it if you are experiencing a very heavy flow. Using more than three capsules a day can cause liver or kidney damage so be judicious with how you use it.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: I am wondering if cinnamon will increase my menstrual flow?

I am consuming Ceylon cinnamon and my period has been delayed. Is it in any way related?

I have been consuming Ceylon cinnamon with honey for the past two months and I found some irregularity in my menstruation cycle. I think it's because of cinnamon consumption. What am I suppose to do?

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Take 3000 mcg of Vitamin C for three days. Vitamin C helps produce estrogen in your body, which is needed to start a period. The vitamin also causes uterine contractions, which can jump-start your period.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

I want to have another baby. My 1st baby passed away at the age of four months due to cancer. Now I have a 5 year-old daughter, normal and healthy, but I want to have another baby. I stopped the pill 2 years ago but not getting pregnant yet, I went to the doctor last month and he put me on fetoMid 50g and this month I got my period again. I have a 28-day cycle, please help me.

I have a child via C section and I'm trying again for the past 2 years with no luck, I have been to the doctor last month, he put me on fetoMid 50g but I still got my period this month please help, I want another baby

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

It can take up to 6 months on fetoMid for you to conceive. Start tracking your ovulation with over the counter ovulation predictor kits and you may need what is called a HCG trigger shot in conjunction with the fetoMid 50g for the best ovulation.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

PCOS and infertility. Follicle get 17mm in size at 18th day, then shrinks?

I have PCOS and one time miscarriage. Now my ovulation on 18th day of periods follicle get shrink, so it is infertility. What should I do

Take cinnamon daily as this article has stated. Follow a diabetic diet and try the herb Vitex. PCOS sometimes needs medical intervention for a successful pregnancy. Ask for a blood test to determine your progesterone as progesterone is needed to support a pregnancy and many women with PCOS have a progesterone deficiency.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

See more questions like this: Can you please explain that I have PCOS and lack of menses?

Cinnamon is helpful in PCOS. I am trying to get pregnant?

I am trying to get pregnant .I am having PCOS problem and doctor recommend me Krimson 35 & cystaRx for this. I Just read the article that Cinnamon is helpful in that. I started 0.5tb in hot water in morning on an empty stomach and 0.5 tb after 1 hours of dinner. But in last 2 days I am having loose motion .Not sure because of this or not, but little concern

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Check out the article section on PCOS to see how it is helpful for PCOS. Your doctor prescribed the Krimson 35 to regulate your cycle and study the progression of your ovarian cysts. The cystaRX is used to regulate your hormones. Once you have regulated your cycles you can ask to be put on a medication like Clomid to help with ovulation. Adding the cinnamon routine to your medicine will help you get on track faster.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

I would be grateful if you can give me some advice?

I had FIBROIDS for 7 years and were removed October 2013, a month after I experienced a pain from my belly button which I had before the fibroid's removal, the doctors told me the pain is caused by the fibroid because it is very big. 7 months later I was diagnosed with ENDOMETRIOSIS, which was removed this year on April, but I still feel light pains before my periods. My problem is, I want to have a second child my first child is 11 now. Me and my husband we've been trying with no luck. Also on the process of the fibroids operation my right ovary and tube were removed by mistake because they did not see them, it's 5 months later I got to know about the news. They told me there was some fat that is the reason they did not see them when removed. Everything is just stressing me and I'm afraid that I won't be able to conceive again, Thanks.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

This type of question requires the professional expertise of someone who is medically qualified to answer it, as you have raised some issues about surgery, a chronic medical condition and post-surgical doubt and stress. The best thing for you to do is take this question you have posed here to your doctor and get his/her answers. If that is not sufficient, then get a second opinion from a new doctor.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Yes, it says dark bark. What is that?

Where can I find dark bark cinnamon? Does it have to be taken with milk? Can I just drink hot water and cinnamon?

Dark bark cinnamon can be found in the spice aisle. You can just mix the cinnamon with hot water and drink it or mix it with some honey. Cassia is a darker cinnamon while Ceylon is a lighter color of cinnamon. In the spice aisle look for the darkest cinnamon you can find or the cinnamon sticks and grate your own cinnamon.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Fallopian distal obstruction and adhesion?

How to restore Fallopian tubes potency and how to cure it with Cinnamon? I have tried: Yes since a month

In addition to taking cinnamon daily, another remedy for blocked Fallopian tubes is castor oil.

  • Warm the castor oil in a bowl.
  • Soak a rag in the oil.
  • Apply the oil soaked rag to your abdomen and wrap your abdomen in plastic wrap.
  • Place a hot towel or heating pad on the wrap.
  • Lie in a quiet place for one hour, find a scented candle that relaxes you and light it.
Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

This therapy has been used for centuries and has great success. You should also try "clean eating" or a Paleo diet to detox your body. This natural therapy should be used a few times a week for several months.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

I would like to purchase it, where in South Africa, can one buy it?

I would like to purchase it, where in South Africa, can one buy it?

You can sometimes find Cassia in the markets and you can also purchase cinnamon online in South Africa. Many South African traditional dishes call for cinnamon so it should be available all the time in specialty stores at least.

Was this helpful? Yes | No | I need help

Comments

VisiHow welcomes all comments. If you do not want to be anonymous, register or log in. It is free.




Babybearmian
Premier Author
88 Articles Started
1,594 Article Edits
23,965 Points
Babybearmian is a premier author with VisiHow. Babybearmian has achieved the level of "Lieutenant" with 23,965 points. Babybearmian has started 88 articles (including this one) and has also made 1,594 article edits. 666,000 people have read Babybearmian's article contributions.
Babybearmian's Message Board
Babybearmian: Hi, my name is Babybearmian.
Babybearmian: Can I help you with your problem about "Use Cinnamon for Menstrual Cramps and Fertility"?
 

Article Info

Categories : Cinnamon Usage & Benefits

Recent edits by: Nuance, Donna, Asim Bashir Khan

Share this Article:

Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 94,557 times.

Do you have a question not answered in this article?
Click here to ask one of the writers of this article
x

Thank Our Volunteer Authors.

Would you like to give back to the community by fixing a spelling mistake? Yes | No