Use Arabic Case System

Edited by Hotelier, priya, Eng, Anonymous

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Nominative

Hello, and thank you for watching VisiHow. Today, we will show you how to use the nominative case in the Arabic language. There are 3 cases in Arabic - nominative, accusative and gentitive. The case of the word depends on its function in the sentence. This is Part 1 of 3, dealing with the nominative case.

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Steps

  1. 1
    The nominative case marker is the "dhamma", which has an "uh" sound.
    For a definite word that has an "al" at the beginning, we will need to use a single dhamma.
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  2. 2
    If the word is indefinite, and does not have "al", we will use a double dhamma, or a dhamma with a small tail at the end, which will be pronounced "un".
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  3. 3
    There are three main pieces in a sentence that will be in the nominative case.
    The first is the subject of an equational sentence. An equational sentence is a sentence without a verb.
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  4. 4
    The second is the predicate of an equational sentence.
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  5. 5
    The third is the subject a verbal sentence.
    There are some other uses as well, but these are the main three uses of the nominative case.
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  6. 6
    We'll demonstrate the nominative case, and how we can mark it, with the following two sentences.
    First, we have an equational sentence, "The book is new".
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  7. 7
    If we can remember, the "is" for the present tense form of "to be" does not have a word in Arabic.
    It is generally left out and implied. Therefore, in Arabic, there is no verb in this sentence. Again, "The book is new" is an equational sentence.
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  8. 8
    "The teacher went to the university" is a verbal sentence.
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  9. 9
    If we want to say, "The book is new" in Arabic, we need the word for "book", which is "kitaab".
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  10. 10
    We need to make it definite, so we will place "al" in front of "kitaab" and write "al kitaab".
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  11. 11
    The word for "new" is "jadid", which is spelled jiim, daal, yaa, daal.
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  12. 12
    Both the subject of "kitaab" and the predicate "jadid" are in the nominative case.
    Since "kitaab" is definite with "al", we will need a single dhamma, so it will become "al kitaabu".
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  13. 13
    "Jadid" is not definite, so we will need a double dhamma or a dhamma with a tail.
    It will be pronounced "jadidun".
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  14. 14
    This sentence, finally, with the cases pronounced, will be said, "alkitaabu jadidun".
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  15. 15
    In the second sentence, we will need to begin with the verb "went", which is "thahaba".
    "Thahaba" is already conjugated for if "the teacher" is masculine.
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  16. 16
    Let's go ahead and use the masculine form of "the teacher".
    We will begin the sentence with "thahaba".
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  17. 17
    "Teacher" is "mudarris", so we will need to make "teacher" definite as well since it is "the teacher".
    It will become "al mudarris".
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  18. 18
    "To the university" is "ilaa al jami'a".
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  19. 19
    The subject is "al mudarris", which in the nominative case, so this will "thahaba al mudarrisu ilaa al jami'a".
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  20. 20
    This does conclude today's tutorial, Part 1 of 3, dealing with how to use the Arabic nominative case.
    If you have any questions, comments or suggestions, please leave them in the space below.
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Video: Use Arabic Case System Nominative

Accusative

Hello, and thank you for watching VisiHow. Today, we will teach you how to use the accusative case in the Arabic language. There are three cases in Arabic - nominative, accusative and gentitive. This tutorial is Part 2 of 3, dealing with the accusative case.

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Steps

  1. 1
    The accusative case ending is a fatha, which goes just above the last letter in the word.
    For a definite word, we will use a single fatha.
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  2. 2
    For an indefinite word, we will use a double fatha.
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  3. 3
    The main case that will make a word accusative is that it is a direct object of a verb.
    There are many other situations that may take the accusative case as well, but the main instance when we will use this case is if we have a direct object of a verb in a verbal sentence.
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  4. 4
    Let's consider the sentence in English, "I studied the book".
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  5. 5
    In English, we begin the sentence with the subject.
    Here, it is "I".
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  6. 6
    We have the past tense verb "studied".
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  7. 7
    Then the remainder of the sentence is "the book", which is the object.
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  8. 8
    In Arabic, we are using verb-subject-object (VSO) format.
    Our sentence would read, "studied I the book".
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  9. 9
    If we want to say, "I studied the book" in Arabic, we would say, "darastu al kitaaba".
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  10. 10
    To write this, we need "darasa", the word for "study" conjugated into the past tense form of "I".
    The ending for "I" in the past tense is "tu", so we would say, "darastu". It would be written daal, ra, siin, taa with a dhamma at the end. Again, "darastu" is "I studied".
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  11. 11
    "The book" is "al kitaab".
    "Al" is definite, and is written alif, laam. Then, we have kaaf, taa, alif, baa.
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  12. 12
    Since we have "al", we need only a single fatha.
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  13. 13
    The sentence, "darastu al kitaaba" means "I studied the book".
    This does conclude today's tutorial on how to use the accusative case in the Arabic language. This is Part 2 of 3 dealing with the Arabic case system. If you have any questions, comments or suggestions, please leave them in the space below.
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Video: Use Arabic Case System Accusative

Gentitive

Hello, and thank you for watching VisiHow. Today, we're going to show you how to use the gentitive case in the Arabic language. There are 3 cases in Arabic - nominative, accusative and gentitive. This video is Part 3 of 3, dealing with the gentitive case.

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Steps

  1. 1
    The gentitive case marker is called a kasra.
    The kasra is placed underneath the final letter in the word when it's marking case. It makes an "ih" sound. If the word is definite, and has "al" in front of it, we will use a single kasra.
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  2. 2
    If the word is indefinite, we will use a double kasra underneath the final letter.
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  3. 3
    There are two main instances in which we will use the gentitive case.
    The first is for the object of a preposition.
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  4. 4
    Also, we will use the gentitive case for the second term in a possessive construction.
    The possessive construction in Arabic is called an "idafah".
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  5. 5
    For the object of a preposition, we have written the English phrase, "in the library".
    It has the preposition "in" and the object as "the library".
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  6. 6
    If we want to say, "in the library" in Arabic, we need to say, "fil maktabati".
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  7. 7
    "Fil", which is "in", is written faa, yaa.
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  8. 8
    "Maktabati" is "library".
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  9. 9
    "The library" is "al maktabati".
    It is written "al", then miim, kaaf, taa, baa, taa marbuuta.
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  10. 10
    Since we have a definite word, we'll need a single kasra on the final letter.
    Again, it's "fil maktabati".
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  11. 11
    For the second English phrase, we have a second term in a possessive construction, which is "the girl's book".
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  12. 12
    "The girl's book" can also be said as, "the book of the girl".
    We would say this as "kitaab al binti".
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  13. 13
    "Kitaab", which is "book", is written kaaf, taa, alif, baa.
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  14. 14
    "Binti" is "girl", so if we want to say, "the girl", it's "al binti".
    We would write this as "al", then baa, nuun, taa. Again, it's "kitaab al binti".
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  15. 15
    Since this is the second word of a possessive construction, and it is also definite, we need a single kasra.
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  16. 16
    This does conclude today's tutorial on how to use the gentitive case in the Arabic language.
    There may be some other instances in which we will also use the gentitive case, but these are two of the main and most common instances. If you have any questions, comments or suggestions, please leave them in the space below.
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Video: Use Arabic Case System Gentitive

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Categories : Language

Recent edits by: Eng, priya, Hotelier

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