Save Yourself During Earthquake
Edited by Emmanuel M. Lardizabal, Robbi, Lynn, Eng and 6 others
Earthquakes are one of the many natural events that can happen at any time. Sometimes scientists can predict an earthquake, but it's not always the case, or is it always accurate. An earthquake is caused by shock waves produced when deep within the Earth's surface there is a shift in the rock masses, usually near tectonic plates. The results of an earthquake can be as simple as tremors, and as devastating as tsunamis and mass destruction.
Earthquakes may be assessed by observing the movements of the Earth using a seismometers. Earthquakes usually last only for a few seconds, but aftershocks can last much longer depending on the magnitude of the earthquake. In fact, aftershocks can take place for days or even weeks after the initial earthquake.
The magnitude of earthquakes are measured from 1-9 on The Richter Scale. In history, the highest magnitude of an earthquake - 9.5 - was registered in Chile in 1960. In 2011, a 9.0 earthquake took place in Japan that resulted in a tsunami. Large numbers of people were affected and many lost their lives. Five years later, and they are still dealing with the fallout from that natural event. Earthquakes may also cause landslides and cracks in the earth making certain areas unstable. They can collapse homes and do many other kinds of damage. In some cases they can even induce volcanic action.
Earthquakes have different movements and occur in three different ways: the Strike-Slip, Normal and Thrust. There are also four types of earthquake waves, namely: P Wave, S Wave, Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave. When earthquakes are strong, they may create aftershocks that can last a while and cause more damage than the initial earthquake, depending on the magnitude of the earthquake.
Moreover, natural disasters can occur anytime, and we should be ready and prepared to save ourselves when earthquakes occur.
- 1 Kinds Of Earthquake Waves
- 2 Earthquake Magnitude Scale
- 3 What To Do When An Earthquake Strikes
- 4 What To Do If You Become Trapped
- 5 Things To Do After Earthquake
- 6 Do's and Don'ts
- 7 Questions and Answers
- 8 Comments
Kinds Of Earthquake Waves
- 1An earthquake is actually the effect of about three kinds elastic waves banging into each other - which may be harmful to people. The body wave created by the earthquake is called the primary or P wave. It is also the same with the sound waves - at the same time it spreads out, it compresses and also dilates the rock. These kinds of V dunes will travel through equally strong rock and fluid materials, such as volcanic magma or even the water with the oceanic masses.Primary Wave (P Wave).Advertisement
- 2The secondary wave is called the S wave. It is a slower-moving wave than the primary wave. As the S wave propagates, it shears the sides of the rocks at right angles and starts to travel. S waves cannot propagate in the liquid parts of the earth if the liquid is sheared sideways or is being twisted.Secondary Wave (S Wave).Advertisement
- 3Surface waves are the third type of earthquake waves. Their motion is restricted to near the ground surface. The waves then travel to lakes.Surface Waves.
- Love Wave. The Love wave is the first kind of surface wave. Its motion is most likely the same as that of the S wave. It has no vertical displacement, but it moves across the ground in a horizontal plane. The movement of the ground is from side to side at right angles towards the direction of the propagation. The shaking from side to side causes damage in the foundations of buildings.
- Rayleigh Wave. A Rayleigh wave is similar to the ocean's wave, where the wave can travel horizontally or vertically. The movement is pointed in the direction the waves are traveling.
Earthquake Magnitude Scale
- 1This is usually not felt, although it will be recorded by the seismograph. It's a mild earthquake that commonly occurs about 900,000 times a year.Magnitude 2.5 or less.Advertisement
- 2This is mostly felt, but usually results in minor damages. It commonly occurs about 30,000 times per year.Magnitude 2.5 to 5.4.
- 3This magnitude causes slight damage to infrastructures. It also causes damage to highways and roads. In a year, it is not unusual for the Earth to experience these 500 times or more.Magnitude 5.5 to 6.0.
- 4This causes destruction in populated areas and often ends up with several casualties. This magnitude is felt an estimated number of 100 times each year.Magnitude 6.1 to 6.9.